Planning for the future may encourage apparently “impulsive” behaviour when the future is anticipated to be bleak. Thus, a seeming failure of self-control in reactive violence could be caused not by a disinclination to plan ahead, but by virtue of this ability. Furthermore, we point to empirical and theoretical shortcomings in the authors' case, such as a failure to distinguish proximate and ultimate explanations.
This paper is a commentary in Behavioral and Brain Sciences on the CLASH model of aggression and violence:
Commentary available online: